Harry Potter: Wizard, Mailman, or Both?

April 16th, 2015

Long before J.K. Rowling had conjured up the worldwide phenomenon of the Harry Potter franchise, Mr. Harry Potter, of Santa Clarita, CA, was completing a daily 72-mile round trip route as an RDF Mailman.

In 1952, the Los Angeles Times profiled Potter, sharing the obstacles faced as a rural mailman, delivering packages and letters through the mountainous region of Southern California. Facing rain, snow, freezing temperatures, scorching heat, dirt and gravel roads, and a 72-mile route, the Times illustrated Potter as the embodiment of the post office motto: “Not snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed routes.”i

Mailman Potter delivers mail. Los Angeles Times Photographic Archive, Negative 78149. UCLA Library Special Collections.

The Times described Potter as, “a stocky, 56-year-old gray-thatched man with the amiability of an old-time saloonkeeper, the tact of a diplomat and the driving characteristics of an Indianapolis racer…”ii which is in sharp contrast to Potter, the boy wizard, but interestingly (coincidentally?), they both seem to have a similar taste in eyewear.

While Mailman Potter might not be the same wizard who children and adults have been voraciously following since the 1990s, he clearly obtained some magic in the 1950s to make it through his grueling daily postal rounds with a friendly smile and a good story.iii

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By Jen O’Leary


i. Attributed to Herodotus, the ancient Greek historian.
ii. Will, Bob. (1952, Oct 20). RFD MEN LIVE UP TO SLOGAN–RAIN, SNOW CAN’T STOP MAIL. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File).
iii. Information on Mailman Potter taken from the Los Angeles Times story: Will, Bob. RFD MEN LIVE UP TO SLOGAN.

WE DID IT! 20,000 images available online!

April 14th, 2015

Half of the approximately 40,000 nitrate negative images digitized through the generous support of Arcadia are now available online — photographs that document Southern California history and culture during the city’s early modern years, including its architecture, design, commerce, movie making industry, civic activities, fashions, and notable people and events. Due to the volatile and unstable condition of nitrate film, these resources were in effect unavailable to users until now.

From sources as varied as newspapers, a Hollywood studio’s publicity archive, commercial photographers, a Los Angeles writer and bibliophile, a landscape architect, and a fashion editor, these images collectively present a broad resource about Southern California history from the early 1920′s through the 1930′s.

As on the online collection grows, interrelationships emerge. Together, the collections tell a richer story…

   

Robert Kalloch, costume designer, at his drawing table, circa 1932-1939 (Columbia Pictures Stills and Key books, UCLA Library Special Collections)

Robert Kalloch design: lavender dress with short gold bodice and fur-trimmed shoulders (Peggy Hamilton Adams Collection, UCLA Library Special Collections)

Frank Lloyd Wright, architect, 1867-1959 (Los Angeles Daily News, UCLA Library Special Collections)

Alice Millard residence, a textile block house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, Pasadena, 1929 (Olive Percival Papers, UCLA Library Special Collections)

 

Jeane Hoffman: Pioneer in Sports Journalism

April 2nd, 2015

While scanning through photographs from the 1950s in the Los Angeles Times Photo Collection here at UCLA Special Collections, it is rare to see women depicted in professional settings, especially in male-dominated industries, but Jeane Hoffman’s picture keeps popping up again and again as the Times‘ sports writer. Since it wasn’t until the mid-1960s that women were allowed in professional sports press boxes, let alone the male locker rooms, her title and prominence at the time was an incredible feat.i

Hoffman started publishing sports cartoons at age 15 in the Hollywood Citizen-News and by 17, she was in the press box covering the Los Angeles Angels in the Pacific Coast League. In 1940, she moved to the east coast and got a job as a sports writer-cartoonist for the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, becoming the first female to cover major league baseball spring training in Florida. This was followed by a job at the New York Journal-American writing a major league baseball column, “From the Feminine Viewpoint.”ii

In 1951, Hoffman returned to Los Angeles and got a job for the Los Angeles Times writing a weekly feature on sports, and she extensively covered the Brooklyn Dodgers’ move west. Additionally, in 1956, she became the first woman to be admitted to the Football Writers Association of America.iii

Jeane Hoffman helps Coast League Umpire Cece Carlucci “get his pipes oiled.” Los Angeles Times Photographic Archive, Negative 85663. UCLA Library Special Collections.

Despite the confidence of her editors that she could get the job done, occasionally they would have to add a short biography of Hoffman before an article to prove to readers that, “She knows the baseball picture there and here thoroughly.”iv And unfortunately, most of her stories did highlight the fact that she was a woman writing about sports (a man would probably not be helping Umpire Cece Carlucci “get his pipes oiled”).

Hoffman continued to fight though, and from her extensive covering of baseball, and her honors as a football writer, to becoming the first woman to drive a harness horse at the Hollywood Park racetrack,v Hoffman claimed more success than many of her male colleagues and broke barriers for women in sports journalism.

Jean Hastings Ardell writes that, “Her success can be attributed to talent, a healthy sense of humor, the support of a strong mother, and, perhaps, starting out in sportswriting so young that she simply did not accept the status quo.”vi

Many people today might not recognize Jeane Hoffman’s name, but her legacy lives on in the photographs and stories she wrote for the Los Angeles Times and other publications. Hopefully her career can inspire other young women to follow their dreams, regardless of the obstacles.

By Jen O’Leary


i. Ardell, Jean Hastings. “Jeane Hoffman: California Girl Makes Good in Press Box.” Society for American Baseball Research. 2011. http://sabr.org/research/jeane-hoffman-california-girl-makes-good-press-box title
ii. Ibid.
iii. “Jeane Hoffman Made Member of Grid Writers.” Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File). [Los Angeles, CA] 21 Dec 1956: C4.
Ardell. “Jeane Hoffman.”

iv. Ardell. “Jeane Hoffman.”
v. Hoffman, Jeane. “Jean at the Reins: It’s Tough Piloting Harness Horse–Even for Woman Driver.” Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, CA] 07 Nov 1956: C5
vi. Ardell. “Jeane Hoffman.”

UCLA Library Special Collections Digital Project Toolkit

March 25th, 2015

Dear colleagues,

I am pleased to announce the release of the UCLA Library Special Collections Digital Project Toolkit, available here:

http://library.ucla.edu/special-collections/programs-projects/digital-projects-special-collections

UCLA Library Special Collections Digital Project Toolkit

Please share widely with your colleagues interested in digitization and digital scholarship projects!

The DPTK is designed to support digitization projects and digital scholarship projects that are initiated and managed in archives and special collections repositories, large and small. It includes detailed templates, workflows, and examples for all stages of digital projects, including:

  • Project planning (charters, selection, prioritization, cost estimate)
  • Risk assessment (guidelines and workflow, templates for risk reports and fair use statements)
  • Implementation planning (metadata guidelines and specifications, scanning specifications and procedures, metadata worksheet)
  • Web development planning (example of RFP, and templates for vendor decisions, design/aesthetic/functionality decisions, user profile templates)
  • Quality control workflow and guidelines for metadata and scanning
  • Communication/documentation tool for technical specifications
  • Assessment and evaluation tools and templates

The DPTK was created with the awareness that digitization/digital projects are collaborative efforts between archivists, digital librarians, metadata specialists, technical staff, faculty, and students, and that transparency, cooperation, and good project management are key to their ultimate success.

I would like to acknowledge and thank the many people who wrote, tested, critiqued, and revised the DPTK over its 2 year development, particularly the following staff from UCLA Library Special Collections:

  • Jasmine Jones, former Project Manager for the Los Angeles Aqueduct Digital Platform at UCLA, now the Metadata and Technical Services Archivist at Smith College
  • Gloria Gonzalez, former Digital Archivist at UCLA, now Library Strategist at Zepheira
  • Heather Briston, University Archivist at UCLA
  • Kylie Harris, former scholar at the Center for Primary Research & Training, now Assistant Information Management Officer at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
  • Amrey Mathurin, former scholar at the Center for Primary Research & Training, now Digital Projects Assistant at UCLA Library Special Collections
  • Numerous scholars in the Center for Primary Research & Training at UCLA Library Special Collections

Special thanks to the staff at the Archives of American Art—they may not know it but their Technical Documentation (available at http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/documentation) provided the inspiration for the DPTK.

The DPTK is a work in progress and we welcome your comments and questions! Please direct them to me at jcuellar@library.ucla.edu.

Best,

Jillian

……………………

Jillian Cuellar

Head, Center for Primary Research & Training and Digital Initiatives
UCLA Library Special Collections
A1713 Charles E. Young Research Library
Box 951575
Los Angeles, CA  90095-1575
310.206.3266
jcuellar@library.ucla.edu

Visualizing the “Friends of the Los Angeles River” Collection

March 17th, 2015

This week, UCLA Library Special Collections wrapped up a months-long project to digitize the administrative records of Friends of the Los Angeles River (FoLAR), a nonprofit organization dedicated to restoring the LA River as a natural habitat and a place for recreation. Over the course of the project, not only have we made the fascinating contents of this archive available online, but we have completed a tour of the collection, which can be viewed here.

The collection is not just administrative records. From photographs, to videos of performances on the LA River, to handwritten notes from FoLAR meetings, the FoLAR records are a multimedia glimpse into the planning and passion behind the nonprofit’s many successes. The collection fills over 100 boxes, but Special Collections has made some of the most intriguing material available here.

To give our visitors a sense of the types of material available to them in the FoLAR collection, we visualized its contents. The chart below gives an overview of our digital FoLAR collection, with larger sizes representing greater amounts of material, and color representing the type of material: yellow is photographs, purple is letters, blue is documents, red is administrative records, and green is promotional materials.

Source: This visualization was created with Raw Density Design.

For those interested in what these materials are all about, we have also visualized the topics of the collection’s materials.

Source: This visualization was created with Raw Density Design.

As you might expect, the nature organization’s records are most often concerned with nature – 128 of the items pertain to nature in some way. The diagram shows FoLAR’s most pressing concerns: the restoration of nature, the return of recreation to the LA River, and community education about the river’s past and future. The variety of topics, however, also shows FoLAR’s reach: while nature is at the heart of its mission, its projects are varied, from sponsoring local artists to create art about and along the river, to organizing volunteers for trash clean-up events, to monitoring the river’s water quality. The diversity of materials in the collection reflects FoLAR’s diverse tactics for achieving its mission of making the river a healthy habitat for animals, plants, and humans.

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By Allison Hegel and Tori Schmitt, FoLAR Project Team

In Memoriam: Leonard Nimoy, 1931-2015

March 12th, 2015

Leonard Nimoy, Portrait Collection (PASC 204), UCLA Library Special Collections.

How could Leonard Nimoy have possibly known that the supporting role he accepted in 1965 on a Gene Roddenberry television pilot would shape his acting future and inspire legions of fans the world over? That a Boston born son of Ukrainian immigrants, who decided to become an actor at the age of eight, and learned his craft in the über intense Method technique, would become synonymous with a pop culture phenomenon is well, as Mr. Spock would say, “not logical.”

Leonard Simon Nimoy was born on March 26, 1931, the second son of an Orthodox Jewish family. According to the New York Times, young Leonard began acting in local community productions during grammar school, a passion he pursued through high school.i Nimoy moved to Hollywood in 1949, shortly after taking a college acting course. By 1951 he was cast in small roles in two forgettable films but making progress when his career was interrupted by two years of military service. After his discharge from the Army, Nimoy returned to California to resume his acting studies at the Pasadena Playhouse whose students included Gene Hackman and Dustin Hoffman. Nimoy “achieved wide visibility in the late 1950s and early 1960s on television programs like Wagon Train, Rawhide and Perry Mason.”ii Indeed, Roddenberry used examples of successful episodic dramas, especially Wagon Train,iii to devise a template for his idea of a show that would go where no producer had ever gone before.

Segment of “Spock’s Brain” script by Lee Cronin, Gene Roddenberry Star Trek Television Series (PASC 62), UCLA Library Special Collections

The character of Spock, so sensitively portrayed by Nimoy, resonated with audiences from the beginning; Nimoy survived the major casting changes between the initial pilot and the series’ debut in NBC’s prime time schedule in 1966. Nimoy brought subtlety to his portrayal as the Enterprise’s lone alien by using his life experiences to shade and shape the character; Spock’s iconic greeting was Nimoy’s contribution, inspired by memories of his religious upbringing. He brought a certain asceticism to the role, adding a philosophical mien to the rationally advanced, emotionally reticent character. Writers featured Spock prominently in the show’s plot lines. If, at first glance, Spock seemed to be the brain among all the characters, Roddenberry dubbed him “the conscience of Star Trek.” Spock was also, in a less obvious way perhaps, its heart. Journalist Virginia Hefferman noted that Spock was “the most complex member of the Enterprise crew, who was both one of the gang and a creature apart, engaged at times in a lonely struggle with his warring racial halves.”iv This made Spock – with the attendant whiff of miscegenation – a highly provocative figure to be beamed into American living rooms giving those turbulent, racially fraught times. Unfortunately, not even Nimoy’s compelling performance could keep Star Trek on the air. Plagued by low ratings, the show was cancelled after three seasons.

Cultural celebrity came later, slowly at first, then gradually cresting in a wave of tsunami sized popularity that threatened to consume Nimoy. His likeness as Spock became a distinctive brand used to sell related merchandise to children and adults. “I went through a definite identity crisis,” Nimoy wrote in a 1975 memoir titled I Am Not Spock, “the question was whether to embrace Mr. Spock or to fight the onslaught of public interest. I realize now that I really had no choice in the matter. Spock and Star Trek were very much alive and there wasn’t anything that I could do to change that.”v

Leonard Nimoy as “Spock,” Portrait Series (PASC 204), UCLA Library Special Collections

There was more to Nimoy, who died on February 27 at age 83, than Spock, of course. He had many acting roles after Star Trek‘s brief network run, including a recurring role on the long running television espionage thriller Mission: Impossible. Nimoy also enjoyed a fruitful career as a director. Among the film she made were two installments for the successful Star Trek movie franchise, and the box office hit Three Men and a Baby (1987). A renaissance man, Nimoy published books of poetry and photographs; he earned a Master’s Degree in Spanish. Still, he was indefatigably gracious towards, and appreciative of, the millions of aficionados he called trekkers. He understood their enthusiasm. “Given the choice,” he wrote, “if I had to be someone else, I would be Spock.”vi

 

- By Lauren Buisson, Technical Services


i. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/27/arts/television/leonard-nimoy-spock-of-star-trek-dies-at-83.html?_r=0
ii. ibid
iii. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Trek
vi. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/27/arts/television/leonard-nimoy-spock-of-star-trek-dies-at-83.html?_r=0
v. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/moviesnow/la-et-mn-leonard-nimoy-spock-and-the-mixed-blessing-of-an-iconic-role-20150227-story.html
vi. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/27/arts/television/leonard-nimoy-spock-of-star-trek-dies-at-83.html?_r=0

Uncovering the Franklin D. Murphy Sculpture Garden in Special Collections

March 11th, 2015

Research Apprenticeship: Franklin D. Murphy Sculpture Garden, class visit to UCLA Library Special Collections.

This quarter, I am teaching a course in UCLA’s Digital Humanities Program titled Research Apprenticeship: Franklin D. Murphy Sculpture Garden.* Each week, my students and I take a new approach to the Sculpture Garden, a hub of North Campus life and home to over 70 sculptures by renowned artists. We have learned about the art historical import of the works in the garden, the people responsible for designing the garden’s landscape, and the challenges of conserving outdoor sculpture, developing over the course of the quarter a deeper appreciation of the Murphy Sculpture Garden and the factors that make it such a significant part of our campus.

George Tsutakawa, fountain sculpture proposal sketch for Obos 69, from University Archives Record Series 640, UCLA Library Special Collections.

Ralph Cornell, North Campus Court Detail View, from University Archives Record Series 640, UCLA Library Special Collections.

One of our most illuminating meetings took place at UCLA Library Special Collections, where Head of Processing Projects Megan Fraser and Project Archivist Jasmine Jones introduced us to the wealth of materials in their files. Drawing from a variety of different collections, Megan and Jasmine uncovered a treasure trove of resources that added a new dimension to what my students had previously learned in lectures and readings. Highlights included a proposal sketch of George Tsutakawa’s fountain sculpture Obos 69, signed by the artist, original plans for and drawings of the garden by the landscape design firm Cornell, Bridgers and Troller, and photos of the Sculpture Garden from its construction in the mid-1960s. For my students to be able to see and hold these documents of the garden’s history was an exciting opportunity, and I was not surprised to see how clearly their visit to Special Collections impacted their research projects. Being exposed to this archive of primary resources helped them to understand the forces behind the Sculpture Garden’s evolution from an idea conceived by UCLA chancellor Franklin D. Murphy in 1960 to the vital space that UCLA students stroll through and congregate today.

*The works in the Murphy Sculpture Garden are in the collection of the Hammer Museum, where I am a staff member.

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By Philip Leers, Project Manager for Digital Initiatives, Hammer Museum

 

The Many Faces of Philanthropy in the 1950s

March 4th, 2015

Do you ever wonder what the local Southern California women’s philanthropic organizations were up to in the 1950s? Then look no further than the Los Angeles Times Society Page negatives in the LA Times Photo Collection here at UCLA Special Collections.

Almost every week, the newspaper would report on and take pictures of the numerous Auxiliaries and their fundraising plans, events and recruitment.

In 1953, the newly founded Volunteer League of San Fernando Valley (still an active organization today) hosted a poolside luncheon to welcome new members.

Los Angeles Times Photographic Archive, Negative 82057

The Times also reported on a meeting of the Pasadena Needlework Guild where they planned the schedule of fall activities, even testing to see how many garments would fit into each member’s car for delivery to the their different events.

Los Angeles Times Photographic Archive, Negative 82058

Among the many galas and benefit events thrown throughout the year in Los Angeles, in June of 1953, the Junior League (founded in 1926 and still thriving 70 years later) hosted a Just for Fun Party with a travel theme.

Los Angeles Times Photographic Archive, Negative 82074

These stories and photos of Women’s Auxiliaries are a major part of this collection, and reflect on the importance of charity work in 1950s Los Angeles. It is interesting to compare these features to the Los Angeles Times Society section today, which focuses primarily on celebrity fundraisers.

What do you think about this emphasis on the detailed documentation of women’s philanthropic work in the 1950s compared to today’s coverage? Is it overkill, or an important historic document of the period?

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By Jen O’Leary

The Social History of Food in Dante: A New Ahmanson Fellow at Work in Library Special Collections

March 3rd, 2015

Danielle Callegari, Spring 2015 Ahmanson Research Fellow

Library Special Collections is pleased to welcome Danielle Callegari as an Ahmanson Research Fellow for Spring 2015. The Ahmanson Fellowships are made possible through the generosity of the Ahmanson Foundation, UCLA Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, and UCLA Library Special Collections. They support research in the medieval and Renaissance book and manuscript collections of the UCLA Library, including the Ahmanson-Murphy Aldine Collection, the Ahmanson-Murphy Early Italian Printing Collection, the Elmer Belt Library of Vinciana, the Orsini Family Papers, the Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts Collection, the Richard and Mary Rouse Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts and Early Printed Books, and the Medieval and Renaissance Arabic and Persian Medical Manuscripts.

Danielle received her Ph.D. in Italian Literature from New York University in 2014, having completed a dissertation on nutritional language and consumption in Dante. Her research interests include medieval Italian literature and material culture, world history of food and foodways, and medieval and early modern European women’s writing and religiosity. Her recent publications include the co-translation of the works of Diodata Malvasia, Writings on the Sisters of San Luca and their Miraculous Madonna (Toronto, CRRS; Tempe, AZ, CMRS, 2015), with Shannon McHugh; the co-edited essay collection by John Freccero, In Dante’s Wake: Reading from Medieval to Modern in the Augustinian Tradition (Fordham, 2015), with Melissa Swain; and her essay “The Danger of Digestion: Assimilation and Growth in Purgatorio 21-25″ in Dante and Heterodoxy: The Temptations of 13th Century Thought, ed. Maria Luisa Ardizzone (Cambridge, 2014).

She comes to the UCLA Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies as an Ahmanson Fellow in Spring 2015 to work in the UCLA Library Special Collections. While in residence at UCLA she is consulting medieval and early modern medical treatises, dietary regimens, and histories of food and eating, especially those focused on wine and water consumption. This research will be the foundation for a chapter in her forthcoming book, tentatively entitled Crumbs from the Table: The Social History of Food in Dante, an examination of food items in the works of Dante and his contemporaries that will contextualize edibles and eating rituals in the Mediterranean of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and reconsider their representations in the literature of the period.

Afro Mexicans in Early Los Angeles: Exhibit Postscript

February 26th, 2015

This blog posting follows the flash exhibit Afro Mexicans in Early Los Angeles.

Photograph of the Reyes Family. Courtesy of the Miriam Matthews Photographic Collection, UCLA Library Special Collections

Arriving in Los Angeles shortly after the city’s settlement was Juan Francisco Reyes, a mulatto soldier from Zapotlán el Grande in Jalisco. He was both the first Black and the first Hispanic alcalde (or mayor) of Los Angeles from 1793 to 1795. Francisco Reyes was also the Spanish Crown’s first land grantee and the original grantee of the San Fernando Rancho – now the San Fernando Valley. Pictured (above from left) are his great-grandchildren: Margarita, Isidro, Jr., Francisca and Mariá Antonia Villa de Reyes, widow of Ysidro, Sr. who was grandson of Juan Francisco Reyes.

There were many familial intersections among these Californio (descendents of the pobladores or settlers) families. Mariá Antonia Villa de Reyes was the granddaughter of Mariá Rita Quinteros Valdez de Villa whose father was Ls Quintero, one of the pobladores. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ceded California to the United States in 1849. An appeal was then filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852 patenting the 4,449-acre land grant to Mariá Rita Valdez de Villa. The land grant was known as Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas and encompassed the modern-day city of Beverly Hills and the areas of Coldwater and Benedict Canyons. As late as the 1920s a cottage, which was part of the Rancho Rodeo, stood on the corner of Alpine Avenue and Sunset Boulevard.

Ysidro Reyes, Sr., grandson of Juan Francisco Reyes. Photograph courtesy of the Miriam Matthews Photographic Collection, UCLA Library Special Collections

Refugio Reyes de Roberts, great-granddaughter of Juan Francisco Reyes, c. 1870s. Photograph courtesy of the Miriam Matthews Photographic Collection, UCLA Library Special Collections

Photograph of Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas. Courtesy of the Ana Begue Packman Collection, UCLA Library Special Collections.

Among the areas of my own research is the history and culture of Afro-Mexicans. In 2010 I was contacted by Terri de la Pena who is retired from the UCLA College of Letters and Science. Her cousin, Joseph “Joe” Peyton, had researched his family history extensively. Joe’s 6th Great Grandfather was Luis Manuel Quintero, 5th Great Grandfather Juan Francisco Reyes and 4th Great Grandmother Mariá Rita Quinteros Valdez de Villa – all prominent in local history. In one of my articles I referenced Joe’s ancestors. Joe needed research clues for finding his 7th Great Grandparents. Additionally, Joe had not be able to locate any artifacts or images of his ancestors. Happily, I have been able to refer him to relevant images such as those in this blog post.

Terri’s genealogy is equally fascinating as well. She is descended from the Marquez family of Santa Monica who came there in 1839. In 2014 her cousin Ernest Marquez donated a collection of early photographs of Santa Monica and Los Angeles to the Huntington Library. In an interesting aside, Terri, a writer, donated materials related to her first and second novels to LSC as part of the Mazer Collection. Terri is in the process of writing a book on her genealogy.

Photograph of Miriam Matthews, 1981. Courtesy of Charles Matthews.

Miriam Matthews was the first Black professionally trained librarian to be hired in California. A preeminent historian of Los Angeles and Californian African American History, she was a tireless advocate of educating the public about California’s diversity from its beginnings. In 1981, on occasion of the city’s Bicentennial year, a plaque honoring the 44 founders of the City of Los Angeles was placed in the placita of El Pueblo de Los Angeles State Historic Park. Each member of the 11 families are listed by name, race, sex, and age from the official Spanish Census of 1781.

Read more on Afro-Mexicans in early Los Angeles:

African-Americans and the Early Pueblo of Los Angeles
L.A.’s African Settlers
Damany, M. Fisher, Discovering Early California Afro-Latino Presence / Heyday Books, 2010.

By Alva Stevenson, Program Coordinator